grub live boot menu entry

From Whonix

Ambox warning pn.svg.png grub-live should not yet considered amnesic! Anti-forensics testing has yet to be done!


One of primary objectives of grub-live is preventing malware from gaining persistence and having an unchanged system after reboot. It would require targeted [1] malware which gains super user (root) access to re-mount the disk for write access.

It is also recommended to regularly boot into persistent mode for installation of updates.


As per Whonix Packages for Debian Hosts.


Table: Comparison of grub-live and Tails

Thing grub-live on the host [2] /
grub-default-live on the host
Tails DVD only Tails USB / DVD, with persistent USB Tails read-only medium all other writable disks unplugged [3] [4]
common [5] mode of operation Yes Yes Yes No [6]
amnesic / protects against disk modifications [7] Yes Yes Yes Yes
protects against malware persistence on hard drive after malware compromise No [8] No [8] No [8] Yes [8]
protects against firmware trojans after malware compromise No [8] No [8] No [8] No [8]
avoid writing to any host disks ? Yes [9] Yes [9] Yes [9]
disables removable drives auto-mounting No Yes [10] Yes [10] Yes [10]
disables swap ? Yes Yes Yes
disabled virtual machine shared folders No [11] ? ? ?
wipe RAM on shutdown No [12] Yes but with limitations. [13] Yes but with limitations. [13] Yes but with limitations. [13]
wipe video RAM on shutdown No [14] No [15] No [15] No [15]
emergency shutdown on USB removal No Yes Yes Yes
Live Mode Usability [16] Not great. [17] Good [18] Good [18] Good [18]
Live Mode Indicator For XFCE only. Not yet documented. [19] Not needed. Not needed. Not needed.
Unified Amnesic + Anonymous User Experience No [20] Yes Yes Yes
easy standard ("everyday") upgrades [21] Yes ? ? ?
release upgrades [22] possible anytime [21] Yes No [23] No [23] No [23]
live boot by default
  • grub-live: No [24]
  • grub-default-live: Yes
Yes Yes Yes
persistent boot by default
  • grub-live: Yes [24]
  • grub-default-live: No
No No No
full disk encryption compatibility ? No No No
encrypted persistence supported Yes Yes [25] Yes [25] Yes [25]

Forum Discussion[edit]


  1. Re-mounting the disk for write access is not yet a default feature of off-the-shelf malware. No such reports are known to us.
  2. Meaning, grub-live not in a virtual machine. For grub-live in a VM, see Whonix Live.
  3. Assuming Tails on a DVD which can only be written to once, not DVD-RW.
  4. Or Using Tails USB with physical, active and effective (non-circumventable by software) write protection switch enabled.
  5. As in a substantial user group willing and able to do this.
  6. This would be a prudent approach but search engines indicate that no or very few users run this configuration.
  7. excluding malware compromise
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 Once targeted malware got active it can circumvent read-only settings, mount harddrive, add malware which gets active after next boot.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Quote

    Tails takes care not to use any filesystem that might exist on the host machine hard drive, unless explicitly told to do so by the user. The Debian Live persistence feature is disabled by passing nopersistence over the kernel command line to live-boot.

  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Quote

    Removable drives auto-mounting is disabled in Tails 0.7 and newer. contains config for GNOME only, which is OK in context of Tails since Tails' default desktop is GNOME and others are unsupported.

  11. Considered a feature or bug?
  12. It might be possible to create a separate package wiperam. Then some meta package amnesia could depend on both, grub-live and wiperam, to simplify live boot for users.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2
  16. The user being aware of currently running in live mode vs persistent mode.
  17. Without Live Mode Indicator (see below) it is not obvious to the user if the user booted into persistent or live mode. The user could easily make a mistake by not choosing live boot at grub boot menu and confuse having booted into live mode while the user actually booted into persistent mode.
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Always good because amnesia always has been a core feature of Tails. It is always obvious to the user that everything is non-persistent except folders for which the user enabled selective persistence.
  20. Whonix ™ is primarily run inside virtualizers. grub-live is an extra configuration step on the user's host.
  21. 21.0 21.1 Using standard package managers such as apt.
  22. Such as from Debian stretch to Debian buster.
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 Release upgrade of Tails from lets say Debian stretch to Debian buster is a non-trivial development effort. See also:
  24. 24.0 24.1 Persistent boot is the default option in grub boot menu
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2

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