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Whonix aims to preserve privacy and anonymity by helping users run applications anonymously. A web browser, IRC client, office suite, and more come pre-configured with security in mind.

Whonix is a complete operating system. It consists of two virtual machines -- Whonix-Gateway and Whonix-Workstation -- which are designed to be used on a host operating system (OS). The host OS supporting Whonix is usually the one installed on the user's computer, but OSes installed on external drives will also work. Users choose the preferred Whonix configuration and may use either a Type I hypervisor (Qubes-Whonix), or a Type II hypervisor like KVM and Virtualbox.

Whonix is Free Software and is based on Tor [1], Debian GNU/Linux [2], and the principle of security by isolation.

Security by Isolation[edit]

Whonix is divided into two VMs: Whonix-Workstation for work activities and Whonix-Gateway to enforce all Internet traffic routing via the Tor network. [3] This security by isolation configuration averts many threats posed by malware, misbehaving applications, and user error.

Figure: Whonix Operating System Design

Whonix concept refined.jpg

Online Anonymity via Tor[edit]

Whonix relies on the Tor network to protect a user's anonymity online; all connections are forced through Tor or otherwise blocked. Tor helps to protect users by bouncing communications around a distributed network of relays run by volunteers all around the world. Without advanced, end-to-end, netflow correlation attacks, anybody watching a user's Internet connection cannot easily determine the sites visited, and those sites cannot learn the user's physical location. [4]

To learn more about Tor, read the official documentation on the Tor website:

Based on Debian[edit]

In simple terms, Whonix is just a collection of configuration files and scripts. Whonix is not a stripped down version of Debian; anything possible in "vanilla" Debian GNU/Linux can be replicated in Whonix. Likewise, most problems and questions can be solved in the same way. For example: "How do I install xrandr on Whonix?" -- "The same way as in Debian apt-get install xrandr". Whonix does not break anything, limit functionality, or prevent installation of compatible software.

Whonix Version[edit]

Each Whonix release is based on a particular version of Debian:

Whonix version Debian Version Debian Codename
Whonix 9 stretch

Note that Whonix does not have a fixed release schedule. A new stable release only becomes available when it is deemed ready. Interested users can query the Whonix phabricator manifest [5] and release notes to track developer progress.


Whonix is[edit]

  • A free and open operating system.
  • An anti-censorship tool.
  • The first step among many in hiding a user's identity.

Whonix Helps to[edit]

  • Disguise a user's IP address.
  • Prevent ISP spying.
  • Prevent websites from identifying the user.
  • Prevent malware from identifying the user.
  • Circumvent censorship.

Whonix is not[edit]

  • A one-click anonymization solution.

Next Steps[edit]

Learning more about Whonix is the best way to determine whether it is a suitable solution in your personal circumstances. The following chapters are recommended:

  • The Warning page to understand the security limitations of Whonix and Tor.
  • Further information about Whonix Features.
  • The implied Trust placed in Whonix when it is used.
  • The Security Guide, Advanced Security Guide and Design chapters detailing the Whonix specifications, threat model and implementation.
  • Other relevant documentation explaining how to use Whonix safely.


  3. In Qubes-Whonix, these VMs are named sys-whonix and anon-whonix, respectively.
  4. Current practical, low-latency, anonymity designs like Tor fail when the attacker can see both ends of the communication channel (traffic going into and out of the Tor network). If both flows are visible, simple statistics can determine whether they match up.
  5. For example, for the next release use the tag "Whonix 15" and status "Open".


Whonix About wiki page Copyright (C) Amnesia <amnesia at boum dot org>
Whonix About wiki page Copyright (C) 2012 - 2018 ENCRYPTED SUPPORT LP <>

This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details see the wiki source code.
This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; see the wiki source code for details.

Gratitude is expressed to JonDos for permission to use material from their website. (w) (w) [1] The "Summary of what Whonix is" chapter of the Whonix About wiki page contains content from the JonDonym documentation Features page.

Random News:

Did you know that Whonix could provide protection against backdoors? See Verifiable Builds. Help is wanted and welcomed.

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This is a wiki. Want to improve this page? Help is welcome and volunteer contributions are happily considered! See Conditions for Contributions to Whonix, then Edit! IP addresses are scrubbed, but editing over Tor is recommended. Edits are held for moderation.

Whonix is a licensee of the Open Invention Network. Unless otherwise noted, the content of this page is copyrighted and licensed under the same Libre Software license as Whonix itself. (Why?)