Configuration Drop-In Folders
When changing any configurations it is recommended to use configuration drop-in folders whenever available to avoid the disadvantages of ordinary configuration files. To use a configuration drop-in folder means "to drop a configuration snippet" which translates to creating a new configuration file in a configuration drop-in folder.
This applies to most, if not all, other (Debian based) Linux distributions including Whonix ™.
- (Only on Whonix-Gateway ™.)
- (Only if you build from source code.)
We'll explain it using an example. For example,says.
Please use "/etc/whonix_firewall.d/50_user.conf" for your custom configuration,
which will override the defaults found here. When Whonix ™ is updated, this
file may be overwritten.
The same in other words.
Instead of editing this file, please create and use the file
"/etc/whonix_firewall.d/50_user.conf". When Whonix ™ is updated,
"/etc/whonix_firewall.d/30_default.conf" will be overwritten. Files in folder
"/etc/whonix_firewall.d/" are sourced in alphabetical order. Anything in
"/etc/whonix_firewall.d/50_user.conf" will always override the defaults,
allowing the user to keep their settings after updating Whonix ™.
The same yet in other words... Files in configuration drop-in folders are usually sourced in lexical order. That means, files namedwill always get overruled by files named .
For example, directly editing dpkg interactive conflict resolution dialog, which would for example look the following.is recommended against. This is because, next time Whonix ™ gets updated, may get new settings and improved settings. You would end up with an
Configuration file `/etc/whonix_firewall.d/30_default.conf' ==> Modified (by you or by a script) since installation. ==> Package distributor has shipped an updated version. What would you like to do about it ? Your options are: Y or I : install the package maintainer's version N or O : keep your currently-installed version D : show the differences between the versions Z : background this process to examine the situation The default action is to keep your current version. *** interfaces (Y/I/N/O/D/Z) [default=N] ? N
Modifications coming with Whonix ™ will always fall back to reasonable defaults, if you were still using an old version. However, to prevent such conflicts in the first place, you're better off reading, leaving untouched, copying settings you wish to overrule from and pasting them into .
Since standardized configuration drop-in folders are not standardized, configuration drop-in snippets are processed in very different ways depending on the software that reads the configuration. Differences in drop-in folders:
- Some allow overwriting configuration variables from lexical lower configuration files such as
/etc/default/grub.d(grub configuration).; Some do not such as
/etc/apt/sources.list.d(where APT repository definitions can be dropped) or
/etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d(where APT signing keys can be dropped).
- Some are
sourceed in lexical order such a
- Some contain scripts which are executed such as
/etc/grub.d(boot grub menu generation).
Ordinary Configuration Files
There is something you should be aware of when editing ordinary configuration files where configuration drop-in folders are unavailable. This applies to Whonix ™ as well as most, if not all, other Debian based Linux distributions.
We'll explain it using an example. Let's take for example.
There is no /etc/hdparm.d folder. Therefore, if you want to make changes, your only option is to edit . But this comes with a disadvantage. Next time this file gets changed by the hdparm maintainer and you upgrade your system, you would end up with an dpkg interactive conflict resolution dialog, which would for example look the following.
Configuration file `/etc/hdparm.conf' ==> Modified (by you or by a script) since installation. ==> Package distributor has shipped an updated version. What would you like to do about it ? Your options are: Y or I : install the package maintainer's version N or O : keep your currently-installed version D : show the differences between the versions Z : background this process to examine the situation The default action is to keep your current version. *** interfaces (Y/I/N/O/D/Z) [default=N] ? N
Check the differences (), then make a decision. If you know you made changes to that file, you most likely want to keep them, i.e. select . If you are unsure, after the upgrade finished, check again that config file and re-apply your settings if necessary.
No comments for now due to spam. Use Whonix forums instead.
This is a wiki. Want to improve this page? Help is welcome and volunteer contributions are happily considered! Read, understand and agree to Conditions for Contributions to Whonix ™, then Edit! Edits are held for moderation.
Copyright (C) 2012 - 2019 ENCRYPTED SUPPORT LP. Whonix ™ is a trademark. Whonix ™ is a licensee of the Open Invention Network. Unless otherwise noted, the content of this page is copyrighted and licensed under the same Freedom Software license as Whonix ™ itself. (Why?)