Everything absolutely optional. Mostly largely untested!
At the top of the Tuning chapter are the easier tuning steps. The farther you go down, the more skill will be required.
Increase Virtual Machine RAM
If less important identifiers are not important to you, and this is most likely very unimportant, you could use VirtualBox settings and increase the RAM for your Virtual Machine(s). Whonix-Workstation ™ will profit most, if you run into low RAM. Also Whonix-Gateway ™ could profit if you are creating big numbers of circuits and keep Tor busy. You can check how much RAM is free using free -m in Terminal.
More CPU cores
On systems with multi-core processors, if less important identifiers are not important to you, and this is most likely unimportant, you could increase the number of cores available to the Virtual Machine(s) in VirtualBox settings.
Nested paging and VPIDs
vboxmanage modifyvm Whonix-Workstation-XFCE --largepages on
vboxmanage modifyvm Whonix-Gateway-XFCE --largepages on
vboxmanage modifyvm Whonix-Workstation-XFCE --vtxvpid on
vboxmanage modifyvm Whonix-Gateway-XFCE --vtxvpid on
Bad for security.
Memory ballooning, Page Fusion, Memory overcommitment
Memory ballooning is bad for security, see this reference (it is written in context of KVM but the research also applies to any other virtualizer unless it has specific protection against that which would need to be stated somewhere).
Other settings for security?
Undocumented Tuning Settings
There are probably more tuning related settings. Undocumented at Whonix ™. Documented in VirtualBox manual but not bundled as a chapter "tuning".
View all settings.
vboxmanage showvminfo Whonix-Workstation-XFCE
Since the concept behind Whonix ™ is not tied to anything, you could create your own implementation. Perhaps using Gentoo with optimized build flags for your system. See Whonix ™ Framework, UniStation and Hardened Gentoo TG.
Might greatly improve graphics performance. Bad for security as VMs should not have direct access to physical hardware.
Essentially this feature allows to directly use physical PCI devices on the host by the guest even if host doesn't have drivers for this particular device. See VirtualBox Manual: PCI passthrough [archive].
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