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Monero

About this Monero Page
Support Status stable
Difficulty easy
Maintainer OSNF2P, thotbot
Support Support

What is Monero?[edit]

Monero is a private-centric cryptocurrency launched in 2014 to allow direct and anonymous digital payments without being dependent on a central authority.

Installation[edit]

Apart from these hints, installing Monero in Whonix does not differ from installing Monero on any Linux based distribution.

Advanced Qubes users could look into CLI Wallet/Daemon Isolation with Qubes + Whonix [1] - untested by Whonix developers.

[2]

Use Tor Browser, go to Monero download page https://getmonero.org/downloads/ and download Monero. [3] [4]

Which version of Monero should I download?

Verify the Monero .tar.bz2 file that you downloaded.[edit]

To verify the integrity of the file you downloaded please follow this guide on the official Monero website: https://getmonero.org/resources/user-guides/verification-allos-advanced.html

Extract the downloaded .tar.bz2 file[edit]

Open the folder containing your Monero .tar.bz2 file. Right click and choose Open Terminal Here. Type tar xvf into your terminal window followed by the name of the file that you downloaded. Here is an example:

tar xvf monero-gui-linux-x64-v0.14.0.0.tar.bz2
Your terminal window will list the contents as they are being extracted. Once completed you can continue on to the next step.

To Start the Monero GUI[edit]

Open the extracted Monero folder then right click and choose Open Terminal Here. Alternatively you can use cd in terminal to enter the Monero directory. Here is an example:

cd /home/user/Downloads/Applications/monero-gui-v0.14.0.0

Now type the following code into your terminal window:

./start-gui.sh

To Add a Monero Launcher to your desktop[edit]

Right click on the desktop and choose Create Launcher.

In the "Name:" field type Monero GUI.

In the "Command:" field type the path leading to your extracted Monero folder followed by start-gui.sh. Here is an example:

/home/user/Downloads/monero-gui-v0.14.0.0/start-gui.sh

Additionally you can add an icon to the desktop link by visiting https://getmonero.org/press-kit/symbols/monero-symbol-on-white-480.png and saving the image to your downloads. When creating your launcher click No icon. Choose Image Files from the "Select icon from:" drop down. Now open the folder where your Monero .png image is located, select the file and choose OK.

After clicking Create a .desktop file will be added to the desktop.

Installation with a remote node[edit]

Using a remote node provides a quick way to set up your Monero wallet. You will not have to download the entire blockchain.

It is important to note that the remote node:

  • can not spend your XMR (you hold the keys)
  • does not know your IP address (we are connecting to it over Tor)
  • does not know your XMR address
  • does not know your balance or private view key

However, using a remote node is not without risk, you can read about the possible attacks here: https://moneroworld.com/

In general, if the wallet warns you about the node misbehaving exit the wallet and connect to a different node.

This guide was written for Whonix 14 and Monero v0.14.0.

It is recommended that you open this guide in Whonix.

Choosing your preferred wallet[edit]

Monero has a command line interface (CLI) as well as a graphical interface (GUI). Go with the CLI if you feel at home with the terminal, otherwise choose the GUI.

Instructions for CLI[edit]

Downloading the wallet[edit]

1. Navigate to https://getmonero.org/downloads and download the Linux, 64 bit (Command-line Tools Only) version

  • Save the file in Browser > Downloads

2. Open the file explorer (Dolphin)

  • Wait for the download to complete
  • Downloads button -> Open Containing Folder

3. Right click the archive you just downloaded and click Extract -> Extract Archive Here

  • After extraction a folder named 'monero-v0.14.0.2' should appear.

4. Copy this folder to your Home directory (/home/user)

  • In this sidebar under 'Places' click 'Home'
  • Right click -> Paste One Folder
  • If the option to paste is greyed out you're probably in /home/ instead of /home/user/.

Creating a desktop shortcut[edit]

1. Click on the hamburger menu in the top left corner of the screen -> Configure Desktop

  • Move Tor Browser out of the way if you're not able to see it

2. Under 'Wallpaper' change 'Layout' to 'Folder View', then click Apply

  • Icons should now appear on the desktop

3. Open the terminal

  • Double click on Konsole on the desktop

4. Copy and paste the following in the terminal and hit enter:

printf "[Desktop Entry]\nComment=Start Monero wallet\nExec=~/monero-v0.14.0.2/monero-wallet-cli --daemon-host xmrtolujkxnlinre.onion:18081\nPath=~/monero-v0.14.0.2/\nTerminal=true\nType=Application\nName=Monero CLI" > ~/Desktop/MoneroCLI.desktop && chmod +x ~/Desktop/MoneroCLI.desktop

A shortcut named 'Monero CLI' should now appear on your desktop. You can now close the terminal.

Setting up the wallet[edit]

1. Double click the desktop shortcut

  • A terminal window will now appear

2. Type a name for your wallet (e.g. monero, remember this) and hit enter

3. Confirm the creation of a new wallet

  • Type 'Y' and hit enter

4. Enter a password and confirm the password

5. Select the desired language for your 25 word seed.

  • For English press 1 followed by enter
  • If it gets stuck here after hitting enter, your node is down. Scroll down to troubleshooting for instructions on how to resolve this.

6. Write down your 25 word seed and optionally the current block height (You can find this here: https://moneroblocks.info/ )

  • If you fail to do this and something happens to your Whonix install your Monero are gone forever.
  • You can use this seed to recover your wallet
  • The wallet creation height can be used to restore the wallet from the seed faster

7. The wallet will now refresh, this can take a couple minutes.

  • If you get "Error: refresh failed: no connection to daemon": your node is down. Scroll down to troubleshooting for instruction on how to resolve this.

Congratulations, your CLI wallet is now set-up.

Common commands[edit]

For a full list of commands:

help                

To show your balance:

balance

To view your primary address:

address

To create a new subaddress:

address new <label>

To view all (sub)addresses:

address all

To create a new transaction:

transfer <address> <amount>

Incoming transactions will automatically show up in the CLI. It takes 10 blocks (~20 minutes) before your balance unlocks after receiving a tx, you will know how much balance is spendable by typing balance and looking for unlocked balance.

The next time you boot Whonix[edit]

Double click the 'Monero CLI' shortcut on your desktop. Enter your wallet name and password, and allow the wallet to refresh.

CLI Troubleshooting[edit]

Changing the remote node

  • Close the wallet if it is open.
  • Right click the shortcut on the desktop -> Open With -> KWrite
  • Replace the daemon host (e.g. zdhkwneu7lfaum2p.onion:18099 ) with a different one from the list below. Make sure you also copy the correct port.
  • Save the file and restart your wallet with the shortcut, your wallet should start syncing again.
xmrtolujkxnlinre.onion:18081
xmkwypann4ly64gh.onion:18081
mmp26upm3gig2ltk.onion:18089  
xmrag4hf5xlabmob.onion:18081
monerospv4fuwduf.onion:18081
7245ifq4iw3uvexs.onion:18081
zdhkwneu7lfaum2p.onion:18099

Instructions for GUI[edit]

Downloading the wallet[edit]

1. Navigate to https://getmonero.org/downloads and download the Linux, 64-bit version.

  • Save the file in Browser > Downloads

2. Open the file explorer (Dolphin)

  • Wait for the download to complete
  • Downloads button -> Open Containing Folder

3. Right click the archive you just downloaded and click copy

  • Open terminal and type
    tar -xjvf
  • Press Ctrl + Shift + V to paste your file path. It should look like this:
    tar -xjvf /home/user/.tb/tor-browser/Browser/Downloads/monero-gui-linux-x64-v0.14.0.0.tar.bz2
  • Press Enter
  • After extraction a folder named 'monero-gui-v0.14.0.0' should appear.

4. Copy this folder to your Home directory (/home/user)

  • In the sidebar under 'Places' click 'Home'
  • Right click -> Paste One Folder
  • If the option to paste is greyed out you're probably in /home/ instead of /home/user/.

Creating a desktop shortcut[edit]

1. Click on the hamburger menu in the top left corner of the screen -> Configure Desktop

  • Move Tor Browser out of the way if you're not able to see it

2. Under 'Wallpaper' change 'Layout' to 'Folder View', then click Apply

  • Icons should now appear on the desktop

3. Open the terminal

  • Double click on Konsole on the desktop

4. Copy and paste the following in the terminal and hit enter:

printf "[Desktop Entry]\nComment=Start Monero wallet\nExec=~/monero-gui-v0.14.0.0/start-gui.sh \nPath=~/monero-gui-v0.14.0.0/\nTerminal=true\nType=Application\nName=Monero GUI" > ~/Desktop/MoneroGUI.desktop && chmod +x ~/Desktop/MoneroGUI.desktop

A shortcut named 'Monero GUI' should now appear on your desktop. You can now close the terminal.

Setting up the wallet[edit]

1. Double click the desktop shortcut

  • A terminal window will now appear, followed by the GUI

2. Select your language, then click continue

3. Choose 'Advanced mode'

4. Choose 'Create a new wallet'

5. Write down your 25 word seed and optionally the current block height (You can find this here: https://moneroblocks.info/ )

  • If you fail to do this and something happens to your Whonix install your Monero are gone forever.
  • You can use this seed to recover your wallet
  • The wallet creation height can be used to restore the wallet from the seed faster

6. Enter a password

7. Click 'Connect to a remote node' and fill in remote node details.

  • Remote Node Hostname / IP: xmrtolujkxnlinre.onion
  • Port: 18081

8. Click on 'Use Monero'

9. Your wallet should start synchronizing. This can take a couple minutes to complete.

  • If you get "Failed to fetch remote nodes from third-party server" -> the node is down. See the troubleshooting section below on how to resolve.

Congratulations, your Monero GUI wallet is now set-up.

Common actions[edit]

To create a new subaddress: Receive -> Create new address

To send a transaction: Go to send, fill in the amount and address.

The next time you boot Whonix[edit]
  • Double click the 'Monero GUI' desktop shortcut
  • Enter your password
  • Allow the wallet to synchronize
GUI troubleshooting[edit]

Changing the remote node

1. Close you Monero GUI wallet.

2. Choose a node from the list below

xmrtolujkxnlinre.onion:18081
xmkwypann4ly64gh.onion:18081
mmp26upm3gig2ltk.onion:18089  
xmrag4hf5xlabmob.onion:18081
monerospv4fuwduf.onion:18081
7245ifq4iw3uvexs.onion:18081
zdhkwneu7lfaum2p.onion:18099

3. Open the terminal

  • Double click Konsole on the desktop

4. In the terminal type

sed -i 's/remoteNodeAddress=.*/remoteNodeAddress=REMOTENODE/g' ~/.config/monero-project/monero-core.conf

Substitute REMOTENODE for the node you have chosen from the list of remote nodes. Don't forget to include the numbers at the end.

5. Start your wallet, it should no start synchronizing. If it doesn't repeat these steps with a different remote node.

Restoring a wallet from file

  • Click 'Open a wallet from file'
  • Navigate to and select your <walletname>.keys file
  • Enter the password associated with that wallet
  • If your client gives an error -> close and restart your wallet. It should work now, if not, try restoring from seed.
  • Continue with step 6 of Setting up the wallet.

Restoring a wallet from the 25 word seed

  • Click 'Restore wallet from keys or mnemonic seed'
  • Enter your 25 word seed
  • Enter your wallet creation height / restore height (Don't know it? See below)
  • Continue with step 5 of Setting up the wallet

Calculating the wallet creation height'

  • Take the current height from https://moneroblocks.info and subtract (720 * the number of days since you created the wallet). It doesn't have to be exactly right, but should at least be before the the first transaction to your wallet. Use this value as your restore height.

Large number of blocks remaining after restoring from seed

  • You probably forgot to enter the restore height. To fix this go to Settings, scroll down to Debug info. Click to change wallet creation height and enter your wallet creation height, then save. You may need to reopen the wallet to have it detect this.

Forum Discussion[edit]

Donations[edit]

After having installed monero, please consider making a donation to Whonix to keep it running for the years to come.

Donate Monero (XMR) to Whonix.

49sP9cMQ5jvhzKW477TH6NJJ2z3pqD8pYRqCyCAqN1Y7QYQMxKf7SPq356BBiNcRwzagpcjqkK66LG4wwr37YjSS3kY3x5P

Architecture[edit]

Monero works by having contributors host large files which are equivalent to a public ledger. Any time someone broadcasts a transaction, every ledger maintainer updates their copy of the ledger and ensures no cheating or fraud has occurred. as with most cryptocurrencies, transactions are send to Public Addresses which are derived from personally created private keys.

Since transactions could otherwise be traced by watching which addresses are sending to each-other, Monero uses a Diffie-Hellman key exchange using the transaction information on the sender's side and the public address on the receiver's end of a transaction to encrypt the recipients address on the ledger. To protect the sender, spending Monero is equivalent to forwarding the output of the previous transaction, so a users address is never stored on the ledger at all - this technique is called Stealth Addressing.

Since this solution is imperfect, and allows EABE attacks and is dependent on ECC for the key exchange, Monero uses a second layer of anonymity called Ring Signatures. When signing a transaction and broadcasting it to the network, Ring Signatures take signers from previous transactions and forge a new signature with Ring Size = N, where you cannot tell which entity in the group N actually authorized a transaction. This further obfuscated the blockchain and reduces the available attack vectors on the cryptocurrency as a whole, as well as introduces several zero knowledge proofs which prevent absolute analysis of the ledger.

Ring Signatures combined with Stealth Addressing prevent many attack vectors, but since new transactions are forwarded outputs from previous ones you can still perform analysis by viewing the amounts spent on-chain. To address this potential issue, a solution called RingCT was introduced which obfuscates the amount spent in a transaction.

Further attack vectors including cross-referencing an address posted in multiple places and IP leaks when connecting to the network are further developments sought out by the Monero community. These potential issues are addressed with Subaddresses and Kovri respectively.

See Also[edit]

It is recommended to read the Money wiki page as it contains a lot related information on how to make anonymous payments.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. qubes-users - Guide: Monero wallet/daemon isolation w/qubes+whonix
  2. Only monerod is currently available from Debian backports. Monero GUI is not yet available from packages.debian.org.

    Package monero can be installed from Debian backports. This is non-ideal, see footnote.

    1. Boot Whonix-Workstation (whonix-ws-14) TemplateVM.

    2. Add the current Debian stable backports codename stretch-backports to Debian apt sources.

    Note: this applies to Whonix 14.0.1.4.4. Later Whonix versions may use a codename different to stretch.

    In Whonix-Workstation (whonix-ws-14) TemplateVM, run.

    sudo su -c "echo -e 'deb https://deb.debian.org/debian stretch-backports main contrib non-free' > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/backports.list"

    Alternatively, users who like Onionizing Repositories can set the .onion mirror.

    sudo su -c "echo -e 'deb tor+http://vwakviie2ienjx6t.onion/debian stretch-backports main contrib non-free' > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/backports.list"

    3. Update the package lists.

    sudo apt-get update

    4. Install the select software.

    sudo apt-get -t stretch-backports install monero

    The procedure is now complete.

    5. Undo.

    On occasion it is necessary to undo this configuration, for example when upgrading from Debian stretch to buster. To proceed, run.

    sudo rm /etc/apt/sources.list.d/backports.list

  3. We avoid wget because it does not enforce https.
  4. We avoid scurl, since there is no redirecting stable link. TODO: can probably be resolved by telling curl to follow redirects.

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