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Network Fingerprint

From Whonix



Introduction[edit]

In this chapter, the term fingerprint refers to the specific way Whonix ™ behaves on the Internet. Those specificities could be used to determine whether a particular user is running Whonix ™ or not.

As explained on the Warning page, the default Whonix ™ configuration does not hide Tor use from network observers. However, the Whonix ™ design attempts to make Whonix ™ users indistinguishable from the rest of the Tor population, particularly Tor Browser Bundle (TBB) [1] users. If Whonix ™ and TBB [1] users have distinct fingerprints, then this information significantly degrades anonymity because the Whonix ™ user base is far smaller than the broader Tor population. [2]

This section briefly addresses possible Whonix ™ fingerprinting issues and how adversaries might use this information to verify Whonix ™ is in use.

Fingerprinting Information[edit]

Info Tip: A unique fingerprint makes the user pseudonymous rather than anonymous.

Various types of information can be leaked about the user's browser, (host) operating system and hardware depending on the external party in question.

Entry Guards or Bridges[edit]

As noted in the Guard Fingerprinting chapter, using persistent Tor guards or bridges can threaten anonymity under certain circumstances:

While natural guard rotation is recommended, there are some corner cases in which an adversary could fingerprint the entry guards and de-anonymize a user. For instance:

  • The same entry guards are used across various physical locations and access points.
  • The same entry guards are used after permanently moving to a different physical location.

For example, if an adversary monitoring network activity observes a user connecting from multiple physical locations with persistent guards/bridges, then it can be reasonably assumed that all connections stem from the same person. Mitigating this risk requires techniques like using new Tor entry guards or configuring alternate bridges for different places.

Nick Mathewson from The Tor Project suggests additional precautions when moving networks: [3]

  • Spoof the MAC address with randomized values on each move.
  • Absolutely prevent non-Tor connections.
  • Ensure a unique set of Tor entry guards (bridges) is utilized for each network you connect from. [4]
  • Minimize the threat of stored Tor state files which record every network visited.

ISP or Local Network Administrators[edit]

The capabilities of the ISP or local network administrator are difficult to ascertain with complete certainty. This is still a general research question for The Tor Project, and not Whonix ™ developers. It is also impossible to prove a negative.

Table: Fingerprinting Domains

Domain Description
Tor Enforcement

Firstly, Whonix ™ solely generates Tor activity on the network. All traffic from both the Whonix-Workstation ™ (whonix-ws-15) and Whonix-Gateway ™ (whonix-gw-15) such as TBB [1], updates, and sdwdate pass through Tor. Establishing an online connection is the task of the host, so the host [5] is most likely using DHCP to obtain a local IP address.

In contrast, usually TBB [1] users have additional network activity outside of Tor, either from another web browser or other applications. This means the proportion or volume of Tor activity might be feasible identifiers to determine whether a user is running Whonix ™ or the TBB [1]. It is probably harder for the ISP to determine whether a single user is solely generating Tor traffic (and potentially using Whonix ™) if:

  • The Internet connection is shared with other users that do not run Whonix ™.
  • A browser is also used on the host. [6]
Tor Entry Guards Whonix ™ uses an unmodified version of Tor, [7] so entry guards are used as the default mechanism to connect to the Tor network. [8] Consequently, a Tor user will maintain the same relay as the first hop for an extended period, [9] which is a security feature.

One addition which is unique to Whonix ™ is its Tor configuration [10] for the Stream Isolation[11] security feature.

Time Synchronization When Whonix ™ is started, the system clock is synchronized to make sure it slightly differs from the host clock via sdwdate. whonixcheck also issues some network traffic to check for updates and news, which all passes through different circuits. This behavior might be specific to Whonix ™. [12]
Website Traffic Fingerprinting Website traffic fingerprinting is also an open Tor research question, which is unspecific to Whonix ™. [13] A related and unresearched issue is whether fingerprinting risks also apply to other traffic, such as apt-get traffic.

In conclusion, the ability of the ISP or local network administrator to distinctly identify users who utilize TBB, Whonix ™, Tails, a custom transparent Tor proxy or similar project, depends on how well Tor actually works. As Whonix ™ is exclusively generating Tor activity on the network and relies on Tor to obfuscate that traffic, the answer depends on Tor itself and resolution of open research questions.

Visited Websites[edit]

Destination websites can retrieve a lot of information about a user's browser and system, while advanced adversaries have even greater capabilities. [14] This information can include:

  • The browser name and version.
  • CSS media queries:
    • Window dimensions.
    • Desktop size.
    • Widget size.
    • Display type.
    • DPI.
  • A list of available extensions.
  • Timezone. [15]
  • Available fonts.
  • User agent.
  • Video card in use. [16]
  • CPU and interpreter speed.
  • Browser history. [17]
  • Via exploited plugins:
    • Leak the non-Tor IP address.
    • Interface addresses and other machine information.
    • List all plugins to fingerprint the user.
    • Retrieve unique plugin identifiers.
  • Read / store identifiers related to HTTP auth, DOM storage, cached scripts, client certificates and TLS session IDs.
  • Browser cache.

To make it difficult to distinguish Whonix ™ and TBB [1] users, TBB [1] is included on the platform. Therefore, Whonix ™ should provide the same information as TBB [1] in order to generate very similar fingerprints.

Whonix ™ Fingerprint Comparison[edit]

Further Reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 TBB stands for Tor Browser Bundle [archive]. It is included in Whonix ™, see Tor Browser.
  2. Certainly less than 50,000 users, although an exact figure [archive] is yet to be published.
  3. tor-dev: entry guards and linkability [archive]
  4. Note: this is not a recommendation for non-persistent guards because a hostile DHCP server might provide new IPs until a hostile guard is chosen.
  5. In case of Default/Download version, it is the host's task to establish an online connection. In the case of Physical Isolation, it is the gateway's task to establish an online connection.
  6. This comes with the attendant risk of the user confusing one browser with another.
  7. Whonix ™ uses an unmodified version of Tor
  8. https://www.torproject.org/docs/faq#EntryGuards [archive]
  9. Typically the entry guards are rotated after a few months.
  10. https://github.com/Whonix/anon-gw-anonymizer-config [archive]
  11. Stream Isolation
  12. It is unknown if an ISP can detect whether a user has many different Tor circuits open. On the other hand, Tor seems to only open X entry guards and maintain them for a period, thus not opening as many entry guards as streams.
  13. See Tor Browser Design [archive] for further exploration of this issue.
  14. Information that is leaked depends on the browser in use, JavaScript settings, Tor Browser's security slider settings, whether it is a malicious attack or not, and other factors.
  15. Via the date object.
  16. Via WebGL
  17. For example, using CSS and JavaScript to perform history disclosure attacks.

License[edit]

Whonix ™ Fingerprint wiki page Copyright (C) Amnesia <amnesia at boum dot org>
Whonix ™ Fingerprint wiki page Copyright (C) 2012 - 2019 ENCRYPTED SUPPORT LP <adrelanos@riseup.net>

This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details see the wiki source code.
This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; see the wiki source code for details.



Do you wonder why Whonix will always be free? Check out Why Whonix is Freedom Software [archive].

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This is a wiki. Want to improve this page? Help is welcome and volunteer contributions are happily considered! Read, understand and agree to Conditions for Contributions to Whonix ™, then Edit! Edits are held for moderation.

Copyright (C) 2012 - 2019 ENCRYPTED SUPPORT LP. Whonix ™ is a trademark. Whonix ™ is a licensee [archive] of the Open Invention Network [archive]. Unless otherwise noted, the content of this page is copyrighted and licensed under the same Freedom Software license as Whonix ™ itself. (Why?)

Whonix ™ is a derivative of and not affiliated with Debian [archive]. Debian is a registered trademark [archive] owned by Software in the Public Interest, Inc [archive].

Whonix ™ is produced independently from the Tor® [archive] anonymity software and carries no guarantee from The Tor Project [archive] about quality, suitability or anything else.

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