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HowTo: Install the Stable Version of Qubes-Whonix 14


Introduction[edit]

First time user?

Installation
These instructions apply to Qubes R3.2 and above.

Remove Old Versions[edit]

Users who are already running any version of Qubes-Whonix must uninstall it before performing a complete (re-)installation. This applies to:

  • Users who selected Qubes-Whonix auto-configuration when Qubes was installed.
  • Users who installed Qubes-Whonix after installing the Qubes platform.

Before re-installation, back up any existing data stored in Whonix VMs. This is unnecessary if users choose to upgrade Whonix 13 to 14 instead of following these instructions.

Update dom0[edit]

All Qubes Versions[edit]

To launch a dom0 terminal, click the Qubes App Launcher (blue/grey "Q") and then open the Terminal Emulator (Xfce Terminal).

Qubes-whonix1.png

Update Qubes dom0.

sudo qubes-dom0-update

Download Whonix Templates and Configure sys-whonix and anon-whonix[edit]

salt is recommended as one command automatically: [1]

  • Downloads both Whonix-Gateway and Whonix-Workstation TemplateVMs.
  • Configures sys-whonix and anon-whonix safely. [2]


In dom0, run.

sudo qubesctl state.sls qvm.anon-whonix

If an error message appears stating that qubesctl does not exist or the command is not recognized, then it is necessary to enable the testing repository and install salt.

sudo qubes-dom0-update --enablerepo=qubes-dom0-current-testing qubes-mgmt-salt-dom0-virtual-machines

Sometimes the Qubes Community Templates repository must also be enabled by editing /etc/yum.repos.d/qubes-templates.repo and setting enabled = 1 in the [qubes-templates-community] section.

If qubesctl still does not work, try shutting down Qubes OS and rebooting the machine.

Qubes R4 Only: Optional Whonix DVM Template VM[edit]

In Qubes R4 and above, users can choose to set up a whonix-ws-dvm DVM Template as a base for Disposable VMs. [4]

In dom0, run.

sudo qubesctl state.sls qvm.whonix-ws-dvm

Optional: Updates over Tor[edit]

TemplateVMs[edit]

To force all TemplateVM updates over Tor: [5]

  • R3.2: For each template, manually open VM settings and set NetVM to sys-whonix.
  • R4: Use salt in dom0:
    • sudo qubesctl state.sls qvm.updates-via-whonix

In Qubes R4, this setting can be undone by modifying /etc/qubes-rpc/policy/qubes.UpdatesProxy [6]

dom0[edit]

To force dom0 updates over Tor, set Qubes dom0 UpdateVM to sys-whonix.

qubes-prefs updatevm sys-whonix

To revert this change, run.

qubes-prefs updatevm sys-firewall

Optional: Enable AppArmor[edit]

If you are interested, click on Expand on the right.

Proceed at your own risk!


The following steps should be completed in dom0 for both whonix-gw and whonix-ws TemplateVMs. After these settings have been applied to the Whonix templates, the sys-whonix (ProxyVM) and anon-whonix (AppVM) will inherit the AppArmor kernel settings. It is unnecessary for users to recreate the sys-whonix and anon-whonix TemplateBasedVMs to benefit from these new kernel parameters.[8] It is also important for users to verify AppArmor is active in the sys-whonix and anon-whonix VMs after making these changes.

Whonix-Gateway

Open a dom0 terminal.

Qubes App Launcher (blue/grey "Q") -> System Tools -> Xfce Terminal

List the current kernel parameters.

qvm-prefs -g whonix-gw kernelopts
qvm-prefs -g whonix-gw-14 kernelopts

For Qubes R3.2, and later releases this will show.

nopat

Keep the existing kernel parameters and add 'apparmor=1 security=apparmor'. For example.

qvm-prefs -s whonix-gw kernelopts "nopat apparmor=1 security=apparmor"
qvm-prefs -s whonix-gw-14 kernelopts "nopat apparmor=1 security=apparmor"
qvm-prefs -s anon-whonix kernelopts "nopat apparmor=1 security=apparmor"

List the current kernel parameters again (hit the up arrow key twice; you don't have to type the command again).

qvm-prefs -g whonix-gw kernelopts
qvm-prefs -g whonix-gw-14 kernelopts

The output should show AppArmor is part of the new kernel parameters. For example.

nopat apparmor=1 security=apparmor

Start the sys-whonix ProxyVM and confirm AppArmor is now active.

sudo aa-status --enabled ; echo $?

The output should show.

0

Whonix-Workstation

Open a dom0 terminal.

Qubes App Launcher (blue/grey "Q") -> System Tools -> Xfce Terminal

List the current kernel parameters.

qvm-prefs -g whonix-ws kernelopts
qvm-prefs -g whonix-ws-14 kernelopts

For Qubes R3.2, and later releases this will show.

nopat

Keep the existing kernel parameters and add 'apparmor=1 security=apparmor'. For example.

qvm-prefs -s whonix-ws kernelopts "nopat apparmor=1 security=apparmor"
qvm-prefs -s whonix-ws-14 kernelopts "nopat apparmor=1 security=apparmor"
qvm-prefs -s anon-whonix kernelopts "nopat apparmor=1 security=apparmor"

List the current kernel parameters again (hit the up arrow key twice; you don't have to type the command again).

qvm-prefs -g whonix-ws kernelopts
qvm-prefs -g whonix-ws-14 kernelopts

The output should show AppArmor is part of the new kernel parameters. For example.

nopat apparmor=1 security=apparmor

Start the anon-whonix AppVM and confirm AppArmor is now active.

sudo aa-status --enabled ; echo $?

The output should show.

0

Update and Launch Applications[edit]

Before starting applications in the Whonix-Workstation AppVM, update both Whonix-Gateway and Whonix-Workstation TemplateVMs.

To launch an application like Tor Browser:

Qubes App Launcher (blue/grey "Q") -> Domain: anon-whonix -> Privacy Browser

To learn about known bugs affecting this release, see here.

Additional Information[edit]

If you are interested, click on Expand on the right.

Known Bugs[edit]

All Platforms[edit]

"apt-get source package" will show "dpkg-source: warning: failed to verify signature"[edit]

This is not a security issue, but only a warning. Read the entire thread here for more information.

This warning message can be removed with the following workaround below.

1. Modify /etc/dpkg/origins/default

sudo unlink /etc/dpkg/origins/default
sudo ln -s /etc/dpkg/origins/debian /etc/dpkg/origins/default

2. Download the source package

apt-get source package

3. Undo afterwards to prevent unexpected issues

sudo unlink /etc/dpkg/origins/default
sudo ln -s /etc/dpkg/origins/whonix /etc/dpkg/origins/default

Proxychains Tor Browser Issue[edit]

Using Tor Browser in conjunction with proxychains for the connection scheme: User -> Tor -> Proxy -> Internet
does not currently work. For more information, see here.

Non-Qubes-Whonix[edit]

Non-Qubes-Whonix means all Whonix platforms except Qubes-Whonix. This includes KVM, VirtualBox and Physical Isolation.

Suspend / Hibernate Issues[edit]

Short: Avoid suspending or hilbernating the computer or Whonix VMs while Whonix is running.

Long: Network Time Syncing, Troubleshooting#Clock Fix. [9]

Mounting (CD / DVD) Devices[edit]

If the device auto mounter is broken, see if Start menu -> System Settings -> Removable Media helps.

The following workaround can be used.

sudo mkdir /mnt/cdrom
sudo mount -o ro /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom/

Using the ro flag will mount the CD / DVD in read-only mode. If a CD / DVD is not being mounted, then drop the "-o ro" parameter.

Forum discussion:
https://forums.whonix.org/t/workstation11-doesnt-mount-hdds/1313

Help fixing this bug is welcome! (ticket)

VLC / Video Player Crash[edit]

The following workaround can be used.

VLC -> Tools -> Preferences -> Video -> Output -> X11 -> Save

Network Manager Systray Unmanaged Devices[edit]

Network manger question mark.png Short answer: Unmanaged devices are unrelated to Whonix functioning and should not concern the user.
Long answer: [10]

Qubes-Whonix[edit]

Missing Qubes Appmenu Entries in anon-whonix[edit]

In Qubes R3.2, anon-whonix in Whonix 14 does not have Qubes appmenus (start menu) entries by default. These must be manually added:

Qubes appmenu -> anon-whonix -> Add more shortcuts

This issue has been fixed in Qubes R4. [11]

Template Installation qubesctl Error[edit]

The following qubesctl error message can be safely ignored: [12]

[user@dom0 ~]$ sudo qubesctl state.sls qvm.anon-whonix
[ERROR   ] Command ['dnf', '--quiet', 'clean', 'expire-cache', '--disablerepo=*', '--enablerepo=qubes-templates-community-testing'] failed with return code: 1                                                                                                                
[ERROR   ] output: Error: Unknown repo: 'qubes-templates-community-testing'

Stay Tuned[edit]

Introduction[edit]

It is important to read the latest Whonix news to stay in touch with ongoing developments. This way users benefit from notifications concerning important security vulnerabilities and improved releases which address identified issues, like those affecting the updater or other core elements.

Operating System Updates[edit]

As strongly recommended in the Security Guide, it is necessary to regularly check for operating system updates on the host operating system, and both the Whonix-Workstation and Whonix-Gateway.

Social Media Profiles[edit]

There are some Whonix Social Media Profiles online, but please do not rely on them for the latest Whonix News or to contact Whonix developers (see Contact for contact information).

As some users will disregard this advice, messages from the Whonix Feature Blog are automatically mirrored to the Whonix Twitter Profile and the Whonix Facebook Profile. However, they are not mirrored to the Whonix Google+ Profile. Diaspora Whonix and Tumblr accounts have also recently been established.

If it is safe to inform others about Whonix, feel free to Contribute via an anonymous account that follows or likes these profiles. This page can be shared on: Twitter | Facebook.

Source Code[edit]

If Whonix source code updates are of interest, subscribe to code changes.

Tor Bootstrap[edit]

Tor bootstrap refers to the process of attempting to connect to the Tor network (successfully or unsuccessfully). Familiar output related to this process includes: "Tor connecting xx percent...", "Tor not connected", "Tor connected" and so on. Bootstrapping does not refer to related concepts, such as whether connections are "secure", "not secure", "anonymous" or "not anonymous".

Tor Browser[edit]

Tor Browser's built-in update check mechanism also works in Whonix, so use it whenever updates become available. [13]

For additional information about Tor Browser updates see Tor Browser. Additionally, consider subscribing to https://blog.torproject.org for developments from The Tor Project.

Whonix News Forums[edit]

For user convenience, there are multiple avenues for receiving news. Choose the most suitable option below.

  1. Whonix Important News Forum Tag (v3 onion) Whonix Important News Forum Tag Rss - Only critical information is reported. This includes security vulnerabilities and new stable Whonix versions. It is best suited for people with very limited time and interest in Whonix development and news.
  2. Whonix News Forums (v3 onion) Whonix News Forums rss - This includes everything including important news and has a relaxed posting policy. Testers-only and developers Whonix versions are announced here, along with the publishing of news about updated articles, new features, future features, development, calls for testing, general project ideas and so on.
  3. Other choices. [14]


If time-constrained, users should at least read the Whonix Important News Forum Tag. Follow the Whonix News Forums if detailed anonymity / privacy / security-related issues are of interest, or to follow recent Whonix developments.

Whonix Version Check and Whonix News[edit]

whonixcheck graphical user interface screnshot
Whonix Version Check (first rectangle in black) and Whonix News (second rectangle in green)

whonixcheck will also automatically provide notifications about new Whonix versions and critical Whonix News updates. [15]

Running whonixcheck[edit]

By default, whonixcheck runs automatically from time to time whenever the user starts a Whonix-Workstation (anon-whonix) VM. whonixcheck verifies that the Whonix system is up-to-date and that everything is in proper working order.

Even though whonixcheck should run automatically and periodically, [16] users can also manually run whonixcheck to check the system status by following the steps below.

How to Manually Run whonixcheck[edit]

If you are using Qubes-Whonix, complete the following steps. [17]

Qubes App Launcher (blue/grey "Q") -> click on the Whonix VM you want to check -> whonixcheck / System Check

If you are using a graphical Whonix, complete the following steps.

Start Menu -> System -> whonixcheck

If you are using a terminal-only Whonix, complete the following steps.

whonixcheck

Depending on the system specifications, whonixcheck may take up to a few minutes to run. Assuming everything is working as intended, the output should highlight each INFO heading in green (not red). A successful whonixcheck process results in output similar to the sample below.

Sample whonixcheck Output[edit]

[INFO] [whonixcheck] anon-whonix | Whonix-Workstation | whonix-ws TemplateBased AppVM | Thu Aug 9 18:09:23 UTC 2018
[INFO] [whonixcheck] Connected to Tor.
[INFO] [whonixcheck] Whonix APT Repository: Enabled.
When the Whonix team releases STRETCH-PROPOSED-UPDATES updates, they will be AUTOMATICALLY installed (when you run apt-get dist-upgrade) along with updated packages from the Debian team. Please read https://www.whonix.org/wiki/Trust to understand the risk.
If you want to change this, use:
    sudo whonix_repository
[INFO] [whonixcheck] Debian Package Update Check: Checking for software updates via apt-get... ( Documentation: https://www.whonix.org/wiki/Update )
[INFO] [whonixcheck] Debian Package Update Check Result: No updates found via apt-get.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. Dev/Qubes#salt
  2. https://github.com/QubesOS/qubes-mgmt-salt-dom0-virtual-machines/blob/master/qvm/anon-whonix.sls
  3. add salt download progress indicator
  4. https://github.com/QubesOS/qubes-mgmt-salt-dom0-virtual-machines/blob/master/qvm/whonix-ws-dvm.sls
  5. https://github.com/QubesOS/qubes-mgmt-salt-dom0-virtual-machines/blob/master/qvm/updates-via-whonix.sls
  6. https://groups.google.com/forum/?_escaped_fragment_=topic/qubes-users/_jI2uWPPMMA#!topic/qubes-users/_jI2uWPPMMA
  7. https://github.com/Whonix/Whonix/issues/67
  8. Since Qubes R3.0, TemplateBasedVMs inherit the kernelopts setting of their TemplateVM.
  9. https://github.com/QubesOS/qubes-issues/issues/1764
  10. Whonix does not use network manager to manage either eth0 or eth1. It is unnecessary to port to network manager at this point, because there is no reason besides this issue. Ifupdown has functioned admirably in Whonix for a long time and is well tested. It is unclear if network manager, specifically cli, is ready for the prime time yet. Network manager is simply reporting information that it does not manage these devices; this is not an error.
    To reduce confusion, the ideal Whonix default would either: prevent the systray item starting, hide the systray item, or suppress the information being presented. Network manager is installed so users can easily setup VPNs with its intuitive graphical user interface.
    All attempts to fix this long-standing issue have failed. Help is welcome to fix it.
    Fix Unmanaged Devices Network Manager
  11. To fix this in Qubes R3.2, developers would need to backport Qubes-Whonix salt:
  12. https://github.com/QubesOS/qubes-issues/issues/4154
  13. The only exception is Tor Browser running in a DisposableVM in Qubes-Whonix, since the update will not persist.
  14. Other choices:
  15. For example: When a version becomes unsupported, if manual user action is required, if major features break, or if security vulnerabilities are found. The policy is to use Whonix News sparingly.
  16. This does not happen every time the user starts a Whonix-Workstation.
  17. Qubes VM Manager -> right-click on the Whonix VM you want to check -> select "Run command in VM"

    Type the following.
    konsole
    Then press.
    <ENTER>
    

    Type the following.

    whonixcheck

    Then press.

    <ENTER>
    

Random News:

Want to get involved with Whonix? Check out our Contribute page.


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This is a wiki. Want to improve this page? Help is welcome and volunteer contributions are happily considered! See Conditions for Contributions to Whonix, then Edit! IP addresses are scrubbed, but editing over Tor is recommended. Edits are held for moderation.

Whonix is a licensee of the Open Invention Network. Unless otherwise noted, the content of this page is copyrighted and licensed under the same Libre Software license as Whonix itself. (Why?)

Footnotes[edit]


Random News:

Please contribute by helping to answer Whonix questions.


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Share: Twitter | Facebook

This is a wiki. Want to improve this page? Help is welcome and volunteer contributions are happily considered! See Conditions for Contributions to Whonix, then Edit! IP addresses are scrubbed, but editing over Tor is recommended. Edits are held for moderation.

Whonix is a licensee of the Open Invention Network. Unless otherwise noted, the content of this page is copyrighted and licensed under the same Libre Software license as Whonix itself. (Why?)